- Sex Discrimination: Charitable fostering agency policy on homosexual behaviour is unlawful
- Sex Discrimination: Tribunal erred in striking out menopause disability and sex discrimination claims
- Age Discrimination: EAT upholds opposing tribunal decisions on justification of the same compulsory retirement policy
- Whistleblowing: Tribunal applied wrong causation test and failed to distinguish between qualifying and non-qualifying disclosures
- Data Protection: ICO data sharing code of practice under DPA 2018 in force
- Gig Economy: Pensions Regulator welcomes Uber pension scheme but warns gig economy
- New Legislation: Consultation response to tipping, gratuities, cover and service charges
- Diversity: Many employers struggle to recruit Black graduates and fail to provide adequate support in the workplace
- Sexual Harassment: Fawcett Society report shows significant levels of sexual harassment at work
- Artificial Intelligence: PwC reports on the likely impact of AI on the UK labour market
Sex Discrimination: Charitable fostering agency policy on homosexual behaviour is unlawful
In R (Cornerstone (North East) Adoption and Fostering Services Ltd) v Chief Inspector of Education, Children’s Services and Skills (Ofsted)  EWCA Civ 1390, Cornerstone, an independent fostering agency which operates as a charity adhering to evangelical Christian principles, had a recruitment policy requiring foster carers to refrain from “homosexual behaviour“. Cornerstone is regulated by Ofsted, which determined that the recruitment policy should be amended because it was a violation of the Equality Act 2010 (EqA 2010) and the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR). Cornerstone unsuccessfully applied for judicial review of Ofsted’s decision, the High Court holding that Cornerstone was subject to the EqA 2010 and the ECHR as a hybrid public authority, and that the policy unlawfully discriminated, directly and indirectly, against gay men and lesbians.
Cornerstone appealed to the Court of Appeal. In a unanimous judgment it held that Cornerstone’s policy was a clear instance of direct and indirect discrimination because of sexual orientation. The Court of Appeal considered whether the policy could be justified, under section 19 of the EqA 2010 for indirect discrimination and under section 193(2)(a) in respect of direct discrimination, an exception which allows charities to restrict the provision of benefits to persons who share a protected characteristic where that is a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim.
For reasons similar but not identical to the High Court, the Court of Appeal held the policy was not capable of being justified as a proportionate means of achieving a legitimate aim. It emphasised that courts should be slow to accept that prohibiting fostering agencies from discriminating against homosexuals was a disproportionate limitation on their right to manifest their religion. The requirement that discrimination on the ground of sexual orientation required weighty reasons to justify differential treatment was heavily underscored by statute in the case of a religious organisation that provided services to the public. Cornerstone had failed to provide credible evidence to justify the policy.
In concluding comments, the Court of Appeal noted that the appeal was a collision between two protected characteristics and accepted the need to protect those who are discriminated against in small numbers to progress equality for wider communities.
Sex Discrimination: Tribunal erred in striking out menopause disability and sex discrimination claims
In Rooney v Leicester City Council (EA-2020-000070-DA and EA-2021-000256-DA) the EAT has held that a tribunal erred in holding that an employee suffering from menopausal symptoms was not disabled under the Equality Act 2010, and in dismissing her disability and sex discrimination, harassment and victimisation claims. The tribunal’s judgment failed to properly analyse the claims and consider the evidence presented to it, and it was not Meek-compliant as it did not adequately explain why the claims were dismissed. The claims were remitted to a differently constituted tribunal.
This case is an example of the difficulties faced by menopausal women in the workplace and the challenges that can arise in establishing that their symptoms amount to a disability. Despite setting out the employee’s comprehensive list of symptoms and the adverse effects on her day-to-day activities, the tribunal’s conclusion was that the effects were only minor or trivial. This is only the second appellate case concerning menopause discrimination at work that we are aware of, illustrating that these decisions are rarely appealed. The Women and Equalities Committee have recently held an inquiry into this area and their recommendations are awaited.
A reminder that ACAS has produced guidance for employers on how to deal with the impact of the menopause on employees at work: https://www.acas.org.uk/menopause-at-work.
Age Discrimination: EAT upholds opposing tribunal decisions on justification of the same compulsory retirement policy
In conjoined appeals in Pitcher v Chancellor, Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford  9 WLUK 293 regardingProfessor Pitcher (an Associate Professor of English Literature at Oxford University and an Official Fellow and Tutor in English at St John’s College) and Professor Ewart (an Associate Professor in Atomic and Laser Physics at the University), the EAT has upheld two opposing employment tribunal decisions on the objective justification of a directly discriminatory employer justified retirement age (EJRA) operated by Oxford University and St John’s College. In the first case, an employment tribunal found the EJRA to be justified and the retirement dismissal fair. In contrast, in the second case, a differently constituted employment tribunal upheld the direct age discrimination and unfair dismissal claims, finding that the EJRA was not objectively justified.
The EAT dismissed the appeals against both employment tribunal decisions. The EJRA facilitated the achievement of the legitimate aims (inter-generational fairness, succession planning, and equality and diversity) by ensuring vacancy creation was not delayed. In terms of objective justification, the EAT held that the nature of the assessment undertaken by employment tribunals means it is possible for different tribunals to reach different conclusions when considering the same measure adopted by the same employer in respect of the same aims. While acknowledging that that it is undesirable for an employer to be faced with conflicting tribunal decisions relating to a particular policy, the EAT’s task is not to strive to find a single answer, but to consider whether either tribunal erred in law.
There were two material differences in the way in which the evidence was presented to the tribunals. First, one tribunal had the benefit of statistical evidence on the impact of the EJRA upon the creation of vacancies, which was not available to the other tribunal. Second, the tribunals received different evidence on the detriment suffered by those to whom the EJRA applied and so were entitled to give different weight to the mitigating factors relied on. Following a detailed analysis of the evidence considered and the reasoning adopted by each tribunal, the EAT concluded that neither had erred in law in coming to the conclusions they had on objective justification.
While the upholding of opposing decisions is undesirable from a wider employment law perspective, particularly for employers seeking to justify their own compulsory retirement policy, it demonstrates the importance that such employers should place on evidence or, if unavailable, reasoned projections of the impact of a policy on the achievement of its legitimate aims.
Whistleblowing: Tribunal applied wrong causation test and failed to distinguish between qualifying and non-qualifying disclosures
In Secure Care Ltd v Mott EA-2019-000977-AT (19 October 2021) the EAT has overturned a tribunal’s decision that an employee had been automatically unfairly dismissed in a whistleblowing case. The claimant, Mr Mott, had made a number of complaints to his employer about staff shortages, long working hours, rest breaks and other staffing difficulties, which he said endangered health and safety. He was dismissed, ostensibly for redundancy, and brought a tribunal claim for unfair dismissal under section 103A of the Employment Rights Act 1996, arguing that he had been selected for redundancy because he had made protected disclosures.
The tribunal found that three of his nine alleged disclosures were qualifying disclosures and that these met the test for protected disclosures. The tribunal found that “the fact that he had been ‘pointing out problems’ (in a number of communications some of which amounted to qualifying disclosures) clearly had a material effect on his selection [for redundancy]“. Although there was a genuine redundancy situation, Mr Mott’s dismissal was therefore automatically unfair.
On the employer’s appeal, the EAT held that the tribunal had erred in two respects. First, it had wrongly applied the test in Fecitt v NHS Manchester  ICR 372 (CA), in considering whether the protected disclosures “materially influenced” the employer’s treatment of the claimant. This test should only be applied to claims for detriment short of dismissal under section 47B. The unfair dismissal test under section 103A is whether the protected disclosures were the “sole or principal reason” for dismissal.
Second, the tribunal had failed to confine its consideration to the effect of the three protected disclosures. Rather, it had considered the combined impact and effect of the claimant’s communications about staffing levels and the associated problems this gave rise to.
Data Protection: ICO data sharing code of practice under DPA 2018 in force
The Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) has updated its Data sharing information hub, confirming that a new version of its statutory data sharing code of practice came into force on 5 October 2021. The code provides practical guidance for organisations on how to share personal data in compliance with the requirements of the UK General Data Protection Regulation ((EU) 2016/679) (UK GDPR) and Data Protection Act 2018 (DPA 2018), including transparency, the lawful basis for processing, the accountability principle and the need to document processing requirements. Section 121 of the DPA 2018 requires the ICO to issue a data sharing code, either by way of amendments to an existing code or by way of a replacement code. The new code replaces the previous version of the data sharing code of practice, published in 2011 under the Data Protection Act 1998. The code has been issued under section 125 of the DPA 2018; a failure to act in accordance with it does not of itself make a person liable to legal proceedings in a court or tribunal, but the code is admissible in evidence in legal proceedings.
Gig Economy: Pensions Regulator welcomes Uber pension scheme but warns gig economy
Website ‘Moneymarketing.co.uk’ reports that The Pensions Regulator has warned gig economy employers that they must “voluntarily and promptly” comply with their auto-enrolment obligations or risk enforcement action.
This comes after Uber recently announced its plan to offer a pension scheme provided by NOW: Pensions to all its eligible UK drivers, following the Supreme Court’s February 2021 ruling that Uber drivers were “workers” and therefore qualified for auto-enrolment.
Commenting on the news, a spokesperson for the Regulator welcomed the “landmark” initiative, adding that “we want to see all eligible workers in this sector have access to pensions saving“.
New Legislation: Consultation response to tipping, gratuities, cover and service charges
The government has responded to the 2016 consultation on tipping, gratuities, cover and service charges, and has confirmed its intention, first announced in 2018, to legislate to provide that tips left for workers are retained by them in full.
Measures to be included in the forthcoming Employment Bill will include:
- Requirements for employers in all sectors not to make any deductions from tips received by their staff, including administration charges, other than those required by tax law.
- Requirements for employers to distribute tips in a way that is fair and transparent, with a written policy on tips, and a record of how tips have been dealt with. Employers will be able to distribute tips via a tronc, and a tip must be dealt with no later than the end of the month following the month in which it was paid by the customer.
- Provisions to allow workers to make a request for information relating to an employer’s tipping record. Employers will have flexibility in how to design and communicate a tipping record, but should respond within four weeks.
- Requirements for employers to have regard to a statutory Code of Practice on Tipping. It is expected that this would replace the existing voluntary code of practice, published in 2009.
Workers will be able to enforce these rights in the employment tribunals. The response states that the Employment Bill will be brought forward when Parliamentary time allows. The new rules are expected to come into force no earlier than one year after the Bill has been enacted.
Diversity: Many employers struggle to recruit Black graduates and fail to provide adequate support in the workplace
Two new reports show that many employers continue to struggle to recruit and retain Black employees. Many Black job applicants feel they are treated unfairly in the recruitment process and continue to face racism at work with inadequate support. The Institute of Student Employers reported that 54% of employers have a strategy to attract Black candidates to their business but only 44% of employers track retention. Another survey, Race at Work, has found that although job applicants from Caribbean (71%) and African (67%) backgrounds are more likely to use a recruitment agency than white people (47%), only 34% of Black candidates felt they are treated fairly, compared to 49% of white people.
Black employees continue to face specific challenges in the workplace, including explicit and covert racism and a lack of representation of Black people in senior positions. Black graduates have called for more support to help successfully transition into the workforce. Currently, less than a quarter of employers provide dedicated support to help their Black recruits address the challenges they face.
The Institute of Student Employers identified that to make a tangible difference, CEO backing is required, and set out five ways companies can support Black graduates before and during their careers, including:
- Being an ally
- Preparing all students for diverse workplaces and addressing racism and diversity as part of this
- Turning recruitment into a force for equality – ensuring that recruitment processes are overhauled to ensure that they are not biased and discriminatory
- Maximising the potential of hires from Black heritage backgrounds – Recognising that organisations need to support hires from Black heritage backgrounds during their early careers
- Transforming your organisation and influencing the world around you – Calling on all stakeholders to make more fundamental changes to ensure representation at all levels of their organisations and that they should lend their voices to wider campaigns for racial justice.
Additionally, the Race at Work report makes several recommendations for the recruitment industry and employers including:
- Critically examining entry requirements, focusing on potential achievement rather than which university or school the individual went to
- Drafting job specifications in plain English and providing an accurate reflection of essential and desirable skills to ensure applications from a wider set of individuals
- Larger employers ensuring that the selection and interview process is undertaken by more than one person, ideally including individuals from different backgrounds to help eliminate bias
- Seeking opportunities to provide work experience to a more diverse group of individuals and stopping the practice of unpaid or unadvertised internships.
Sexual Harassment: Fawcett Society report shows significant levels of sexual harassment at work
A new report published by the Fawcett Society, Tackling Sexual Harassment in the Workplace, shows that at least 40% of women experience sexual harassment during their career. Twenty-three per cent of those surveyed said that the sexual harassment increased or escalated while they were working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Disabled women surveyed were more likely to have experienced sexual harassment (68%) than women in general (52%). Employees from ethnic minority backgrounds, both men and women, reported experiencing sexual harassment at a higher level than white employees, with rates of 32% and 28% respectively. The report also found that 68% of LGBT employees had experienced harassment in the workplace.
Culture, policy, training, reporting mechanisms and the way employers respond to reports are five critical elements to help create a workplace intolerant of sexual harassment. The report recommends that employers should:
- Take all forms of sexual harassment seriously.
- Treat employees who report sexual harassment with respect and empathy and ensure women feel able to report harassment, including facilitating anonymous reporting.
- Increase gender equality within the organisation, especially at senior levels.
- Demonstrate leadership commitment to tackling harassment.
- Measure their organisational attitudes towards sexual harassment by conducting an employee survey.
- Provide managers dealing with reports with guidance and support.
- Have a clear and detailed sexual harassment policy that is separate to their general harassment and bullying policy.
The recommendations in the report will form the basis of a sexual harassment toolkit for employers which will be published next January. Employers can sign up to receive a copy of the toolkit (see Fawcett Society: Sexual Harassment Toolkit for Employers).
Artificial Intelligence: PwC reports on the likely impact of AI on the UK labour market
On 8 October 2021, BEIS published a report prepared by PwC, The Potential Impact of Artificial Intelligence on UK Employment and the Demand for Skills. For the purposes of the report, artificial intelligence (AI) is a collective term for digital systems and machines that can, in at least some ways, sense their environment, think, learn and take action in response to what they are sensing and their objectives. The report considers two main questions:
- Whether AI and related technologies (such as robots, drones and autonomous vehicles) will follow historical patterns by triggering significant structural labour market change.
- How large the disruption to labour markets from AI will be and what form it will take.
The report concludes that, while AI and related technologies should not cause mass technological unemployment (by displacing large numbers of workers from their jobs), they may lead to significant changes in the structure of employment across occupations, sectors and regions of the UK. The effects may be relatively small over the next five years but could become more material over the next ten to 20 years. They may add to income inequalities by tending to favour people with higher education and skills levels, who also tend to have higher earnings levels.
PwC’s modelling estimates that professional occupations will experience the highest net job gains over time, with nearly half the increase being in jobs for health professionals and the other half spread between scientists, researchers, engineers, technologists, educators, businesspeople, media professionals and civil servants. AI in these occupations is likely to be largely labour-augmenting and used to perform specific tasks that increase productivity (for example, lawyers using AI to read large numbers of cases to search for precedents and other arguments to use in a current case). Managerial occupations, for which tasks involved are difficult to automate, and occupations requiring “human touch” (such as caring or leisure) are also likely to experience net job creation. Other occupations are likely to experience changing patterns over time, with sales and customer services experiencing the highest rate of job displacement over the next five years, administration experiencing particularly high displacement in five to ten years and manual occupations (including taxi drivers) experiencing high rates of displacement but probably not before the 2030s.
If you would like any additional information, please contact Anne-Marie Pavitt or Sophie Banks on: email@example.com
- Redundancy: How a redundancy situation arises doesn’t affect whether it arises or not
- Freedom of Information: Employer withheld qualifications and training information from FOIA disclosure under personal data exemption
- COVID-19: Occupational Health teams urged to consider cold working environments a transmission risk factor
- DBS Checks: New filtering rules for Standard and Enhanced DBS checks
- ACAS: Change to Early Conciliation Rules
- Diversity: Two-thirds of students and graduates do not believe employers recruit a truly diverse workforce
- Race Discrimination: First employer signs up to code of practice on race-based hair discrimination
- Minimum Wage: Just Eat couriers to receive NMW and other benefits
- Contracts: Government consultations on extending the ban on exclusivity clauses, and reforming post-termination non-compete clauses
- Human Rights: Government launches independent review of Human Rights Act 1998
Redundancy: How a redundancy situation arises doesn’t affect whether it arises or not
In Berkeley Catering Limited v Jackson  UKEAT/0074/20/LA(V) the EAT looked at the effect of how the redundancy situation arises on whether a redundancy situation exists or not. In this case, the owner manager of a company named himself CEO and took over management decision-making and operations. As there was already a Managing Director (the claimant), it undermined her position, and the company claimed it no longer had a requirement for her and therefore the need to carry out work of that particular kind had diminished, and she was made redundant. As a result, Mrs Jackson claimed unfair dismissal.
The tribunal found that, as a matter of law and fact, there was no redundancy, and also that there was no business reorganisation constituting some other substantial reason for dismissal. The EAT disagreed and instead held that the tribunal erred in finding that there was no “genuine redundancy” where the employer had arranged matters so that its Director took over the claimant’s duties in addition to his own duties, because those facts established a redundancy situation under section 139(1)(b) Employment Rights Act 1996. The test was whether “one employee was now doing the work formerly done by two, [then] the statutory test of redundancy had been satisfied”, even where the amount of work to be done was unchanged. There was no error in the tribunal’s rejection of the employer’s alternative case of some other substantial reason, holding that if there was a business reorganisation it was not the employer’s true reason for dismissing the claimant. Justice Bourne said “A redundancy situation under section 139(1)(b) either exists or it does not. It is open to an employer to organise its affairs so that its requirement for employees to carry out particular work diminishes. If that occurs, the motive of the employer is irrelevant to the question of whether the redundancy situation exists.” (p.8 para E) He went on to say that even where a redundancy situation exists, it does not necessarily follow that the redundancy was the reason for the dismissal. Additionally, even if the employer proves that the reason was a potentially fair reason such as redundancy, section 98(4) ERA requires the tribunal to decide whether in the circumstances the employer acted reasonably or unreasonably in treating it as a sufficient reason for dismissing the employee. A claim may succeed on the basis of substantive and/or procedural unfairness.
In this case, Berkeley arranged its affairs so that Mr Patel took over the work of the MD, there was a diminution in the requirement for employees to carry out work of that kind, ergo, a redundancy situation. That part of the appeal failed. The next question was whether the dismissal had been fair. A redundancy or some other substantial reason (such as business re-organisation) can be fair, however, the tribunal had not properly considered the unfair dismissal elements of this case because it had found no redundancy so the EAT remitted the questions regarding the fairness of the dismissal back to a new tribunal to be considered.
Freedom of Information: Employer withheld qualifications and training information from FOIA disclosure under personal data exemption
In Kol v Information Commissioner and another (EA/2020/0017P) (6 October 2020) the applicant asked Reigate and Banstead Borough Council (council), the second respondent, for information concerning four specified council officers (including its Head of Planning, a Conservation Officer, a Senior Enforcement Officer and a Graduate Planning Officer). This included their relevant professional qualifications, recent professional development training and training attendance record.
The council withheld the information under section 40(2) (with section 40(3A)(a)) of the Freedom of Information Act 2000 (FOIA) (the personal data exemption). The relevant academic qualifications of two of the officers were already in the public domain. The Information Commissioner (IC) rejected the applicant’s complaint.
On appeal, the First-tier Tribunal (Information Rights) (FTT(IR)) upheld the IC’s decision, holding that the council had been permitted to withhold the information. Disclosure was not necessary to meet the applicant’s (undisputed) legitimate interest in ensuring that council officers were appropriately qualified. Without satisfying the lawful basis in Article 6(1)(f) of the GDPR, disclosure would have breached the first data protection principle of lawful, fair and transparent processing (Article 5(1)(a), GDPR). The FTT(IR) considered that:
- If the applicant’s legitimate aim could be achieved “by something less” than disclosure, disclosure was not necessary. The IC had correctly adopted this approach and was not required to consider Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights (right to respect for private and family life).
- When considering the alternatives available, however, the IC was wrong to place much weight on the council’s complaints procedure for challenging the actions of individual officers. This was not a forum for challenging officers’ qualifications or training.
- Together with the publicly available information on two of the officers, the fact that the council required proof of qualifications from would-be employees as part of its recruitment process and that training was provided to officers as required, meant that the applicant’s legitimate interests were met (“by something less”).
The FTT(IR) also held that the IC had been permitted to take a different approach than in Decision notice FS50146907, in which section 40(2) did not prevent disclosure of the professional qualification details, among other information, of all lawyers in the Treasury Solicitor’s Department.
Employee information is commonly requested under FOIA and this decision presents a straightforward but relevant analysis of the framework under section 40 and the GDPR.
COVID-19: Occupational Health teams urged to consider cold working environments a transmission risk factor
Researchers at the St John’s Institute of Dermatology at Guy’s Hospital in London have written an article published in the Occupational Health Medical Journal which suggests that environmental factors including low temperatures, low air exchange rates and metal surfaces increase the risk of transmission of COVID-19.
In response to the data, the researchers recommend that employers and occupational health teams consider working in cold environments to be an independent occupational risk factor for developing COVID-19. Employers are advised to conduct risk assessments and individual health risk appraisals to identify staff who have pre-existing health conditions and may be predisposed to developing infections. They also noted that additional interventions should be implemented to protect against the cold and that airborne transmission can be reduced by improving ventilation.
DBS Checks: New filtering rules for Standard and Enhanced DBS checks
With effect from 28 November 2020, the criminal records disclosure regime has been amended by the catchily named ‘The Police Act 1997 (Criminal Record Certificates: Relevant Matters) (Amendment) (England and Wales) Order 2020’ (SI 2020/1364) (the Order). The changes were brought about following the decision by the Supreme Court in R (on the application of P) v Secretary of State for the Home Department 2019 UKSC 3. The Supreme Court identified that some elements of the existing filtering rules were disproportionate: the multiple conviction rule, and the warnings and reprimands given to young offenders.
A Disclosure Barring Service (DBS) check enables employers to check the criminal records of current and potential employees in order to ascertain whether or not they are suitable to work with vulnerable adults and children based on the applicant’s criminal record history. For certain positions, a valid DBS disclosure is a legislative requirement. The information disclosed by the DBS check is governed by Part V of the Police Act 1997 (in England and Wales), which sets out when a criminal record certificate (CRC) or an enhanced criminal record certificate (ECRC) must be issued. Both certificates must include any ‘relevant matter’ recorded on the Police National Computer as defined in S.113A(6) of the 1997 Act. The Order has narrowed the definition of ‘relevant matter’ by removing youth cautions (including youth warnings and reprimands) from the scope of the definition, as well as the ‘multiple conviction rule’, which provided that where a person had more than one conviction all their convictions (regardless of their nature) had to be disclosed. Neither of these two matters are now subject to mandatory disclosure.
This means that certificates produced after 28 November will be processed under the new filtering rules, and those issued prior to that date will be in line with the previous rules.
You can read the updated DBS guidance here: https://www.gov.uk/government/news/new-filtering-rules.
ACAS: Change to Early Conciliation Rules
The ACAS Early Conciliation Rules have been updated from 1 December to allow for a standard six weeks for the early conciliation talks. Prior to this, the provisions were one month with a possible extension of a further two weeks.
Diversity: Two-thirds of students and graduates do not believe employers recruit a truly diverse workforce
In a poll recently published by Milkround, 66% of 1,000 students and graduates revealed that they do not believe that employers recruit a truly diverse workforce. Interestingly, the majority stated that, from their perspective, recruitment decisions are based largely on physical appearance (58%), ethnicity (52%) and nationality (52%). These figures are a stark contrast with the fact that 59% of employers see their efforts to recruit a diverse workforce as sufficient.
Looking forward, 62% of students and graduates agreed that the introduction of blind recruitment practices could be effective in reducing unconscious bias. Although the poll revealed that only 14% of employers currently practice blind recruitment, 37% were planning to do so in the near future. For more information on how the blind recruitment process works, read the Milkround blog here.
Race Discrimination: First employer signs up to code of practice on race-based hair discrimination
Unilever is the first employer to sign up to the Halo Collective’s new pledge and code of practice to end race-based hair discrimination in schools and the workplace. It is hoped that the new Halo Code will tackle statistics which reveal that one in five Black women feel societal pressure to straighten their hair for work even though race-based hair discrimination is illegal under the Equality Act 2010.
Minimum Wage: Just Eat couriers to receive NMW and other benefits
Food delivery company, Just Eat, has announced that it will be introducing a range of measures designed to support its couriers and ensure that they receive the national minimum wage. This has been an ongoing issue with rival companies such as Uber and Deliveroo, whose drivers have been found to be workers, rather than self-employed contractors, by the courts. Just Eat will start its new policy in London, with a nationwide roll out in 2021, paying couriers by the hour rather than by the job. It will also pay pension contributions, holiday pay, sick pay and maternity and paternity pay. The move is intended to create a thousand jobs including full-time, part-time and zero-hour work, with couriers being given the choice to opt-in or out of the scheme.
Just Eat’s initiative follows a series of recent cases that have considered the employment status of drivers, couriers and other gig economy workers. The decision of the Supreme Court in Uber v Aslam, which was heard in June 2020, is awaited.
Contracts: Government consultations on extending the ban on exclusivity clauses, and reforming post-termination non-compete clauses
On 4 December 2020, BEIS opened two consultations: one on measures to extend the ban on exclusivity clauses in employment contracts to cover those earning under the Lower Earnings Limit, currently £120 a week, and the other on measures to reform post-termination non-compete clauses in employment contracts.
The extension of the ban on exclusivity clauses in contracts would prevent employers from contractually restricting low earning employees from working for other employers. The government previously consulted on this proposal but decided to only introduce a ban on exclusivity clauses in zero hours contracts in 2015. It is revisiting the measure again as it is mindful that low earners have been particularly adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, and many employers are currently unable to offer their employees sufficient hours for them to make ends meet.
The consultation on reform of post-termination non-compete clauses in employment contracts seeks views on proposals to require employers to continue paying compensation to employees for the duration of a post-termination non-compete clause, requiring employers to confirm in writing to employees the exact terms of a non-compete clause before their employment commences, introducing a statutory limit on the length of non-compete clauses, or banning the use of post-termination non-compete clauses altogether. The consultation follows a call for evidence on the use of non-compete clauses in 2016 which found that they worked well and were a valuable and necessary tool for employers in protecting their business interests.
Both consultations close on 26 February 2021.
Human Rights: Government launches independent review of Human Rights Act 1998
On 7 December 2020, the government announced the launch of an independent review of the Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) and whether it requires reform.
The review will be undertaken by a panel headed by Sir Peter Gross (a former Court of Appeal judge) and will consider:
- The relationship between the domestic courts and the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), including how the duty to take account of ECtHR case law has been applied in practice, and whether dialogue between domestic courts and the ECtHR works effectively.
- The impact of the HRA 1998 on the relationship between the judiciary, executive and Parliament, and whether domestic courts are being unduly drawn into areas of policy.
- The implications of the way in which the HRA 1998 applies outside the territory of the UK and whether there is a case for change.
The government states that the UK remains committed to the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) and the review is limited to examining the structural framework of the HRA 1998, rather than the rights themselves.
The review is expected to report its recommendations in summer 2021. It runs alongside the independent review of judicial review as part of the government’s commitment to examine the constitution and relationship between the government, Parliament and the courts. Ultimately the reviews of the HRA 1998 and judicial review (alongside other workstreams) will deliver their findings to the Constitution, Democracy and Rights Commission.
If you would like any additional information, please contact Anne-Marie Pavitt or Sophie Banks on: firstname.lastname@example.org