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Legal Update June 2024: Navigating the Shifting Landscape of Commercial Real Estate in the UK

Property Commercial Property Law

The UK commercial real estate market is undergoing significant transformations driven by evolving economic conditions, legislative changes, and shifting business needs. For investors, landlords, and tenants, staying informed about these changes is crucial. This article provides a comprehensive update on recent legal developments in the UK commercial real estate sector, offering valuable insights for stakeholders looking to navigate this dynamic landscape effectively.

Recent Commercial Real Estate Legal Developments:

Lease Negotiations and Break Clauses

The pandemic has underscored the importance of flexible lease terms. Break clauses, which allow tenants to terminate leases early, have become a focal point in negotiations. Recent case law highlights the need for clear, precise wording in break clauses to avoid disputes.

Case Study: Capitol Park Leeds Plc v. Global Radio Services Ltd (2020)

Key Points:

  • Break Clause Conditions: The lease contained a break clause allowing the tenant to terminate the lease early, provided certain conditions were met, including giving notice by a specified date and a requirement to give vacant possession of the premises.
  • Tenant’s Compliance: Global Radio Services Ltd gave notice to break the lease but had stripped out certain elements of the property, including ceiling grids, lighting, and ventilation equipment. The landlord contended that in returning the property minus the stripped-out elements, the tenant had not complied with the condition to ‘give vacant possession of the premises’. The tenant argued that while it may be in breach of its repairing obligations under the lease and therefore liable for dilapidations, it nevertheless had given vacant possession.
  • Court’s Decision: The Court ruled in favour of the landlord, stating that the conditions of the break clause must be strictly adhered to. Accordingly, the tenant had not given the landlord vacant possession.

This case emphasises the importance of strict compliance with break clause conditions. Tenants must adhere to all stipulated requirements to exercise break options effectively.

Case Study: Ibrend Estates BV v NYK Logistics (UK) Ltd [2011] All ER (D) 117

Key Points:

  • Break Clause Conditions: Vacant possession was required, making it a condition precedent to exercising the break clause.
  • Tenant’s Compliance: The tenant terminated the lease by exercising their right under the break clause. The tenant had offered to vacate the premises but did not return the keys and had instructed their workmen to continue with repair and redecorating obligations after the relevant date for vacant possession. The tenant advised that it would have complied with any instructions to stop the work and leave the site and thus provide vacant possession.
  • Court’s Decision: It was held that the tenant maintained occupation and did not deliver vacant possession. They had continued to control access, via their security guard, to the site. The tenant had maintained its occupation in the same manner as it had before the end of the lease.

This case emphasises the importance of strictly adhering to lease conditions, particularly regarding the delivery of vacant possession as a condition precedent for exercising a break clause. The court’s decision underscores the necessity for lessees to fully comply with vacating procedures to avoid disputes and potential continuation of lease obligations.


  • Strict Compliance: The rulings underscore the necessity for tenants to adhere strictly to all conditions in a break clause, regardless of the perceived significance of any obligations.
  • Negotiation: When discussing break clauses in your lease agreement, it is crucial to negotiate the terms. Specifically, consider changing the requirement for vacant possession to “free of occupation.” This adjustment can provide greater flexibility and reduce the risk of complications or disputes when exercising the break clause.
  • Attention to Detail: Both landlords and tenants should ensure all terms and conditions in lease agreements are clear and precise to avoid disputes.

Leasehold and Freehold Reform Act 2024

The Leasehold and Freehold Reform Act 2024, although granted royal assent on 24 May 2024 and thus becoming law, has yet to see most provisions come into effect and is not yet in force. We can reflect on the legislation and consider the provisions contained within.

This Act introduces significant changes, including prohibiting the grant or assignment of certain new long residential leases of houses. It amends tenants’ rights under long residential leases to acquire the freeholds of their houses, extend leases of their houses or flats, and collectively enfranchise or manage the buildings containing their flats. Additionally, it allows tenants to reduce their lease rent to a peppercorn and regulates the relationship between residential landlords and tenants, residential estate management, and rent charges. It also amends the Building Safety Act 2022 concerning the remediation of building defects and the insolvency of persons with repairing obligations for certain types of buildings. The current position is that the Act came into force partly on May 24, 2024, and was to be further enacted on July 24, 2024, and then fully effective on a date specified by the Secretary of State. Given that a General Election has now been called, we will need to see if this has any effect on the application of the Act.

The Act Empowers Leaseholders By:

  • Making it cheaper and easier for existing leaseholders of houses and flats to extend their lease or purchase their freehold.
  • Increasing the standard lease extension term from 90 years to 990 years for both houses and flats, with ground rent reduced to a peppercorn.
  • Eliminating the requirement for new leaseholders to have owned their house for two years before extending their lease or buying their freehold, and similarly for flats.
  • Increasing the 25% ‘non-residential’ limit to 50%, enabling leaseholders in buildings with up to 50% non-residential space to buy their freehold or manage their building.

Enhances Leaseholder Consumer Rights By:

  • Mandating greater transparency regarding service charges, with regular provision of key financial and non-financial information to leaseholders. This includes a standardized service charge demand form and an annual report to facilitate scrutiny and challenge unreasonable costs.
  • Replacing building insurance commissions for managing agents, landlords, and freeholders with transparent administration fees.
  • Eliminating the presumption that leaseholders must cover landlords’ legal costs when challenging poor practices.
  • Extending the same rights of redress to freehold homeowners on private and mixed tenure estates as leaseholders. This includes transparency over estate charges and the ability to challenge these charges through a Tribunal.

Update on Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards (MEES)

The Minimum Energy Efficiency Standards (MEES) regulations are a critical part of the UK government’s efforts to enhance energy efficiency and reduce carbon emissions in the building sector. These regulations set the minimum energy performance levels for commercial and residential properties that can be legally let.

Key Points:

  • Current Standards: Since April 2018, landlords have been prohibited from granting new leases (including renewals and extensions) on properties with an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) rating below ‘E’.
  • Recent Changes: As of April 1, 2023, MEES regulations were extended to cover all existing commercial leases. This means that all commercial properties must now have a minimum EPC rating of ‘E’ to be legally let, regardless of when the lease commenced.
  • Future Targets: The government aims to further tighten these standards, targeting a minimum EPC rating of ‘C’ by 2027 and ‘B’ by 2030. These targets align with the UK’s broader goal of achieving net-zero carbon emissions by 2050.

Practical Implications

For Landlords:

  • Lease Flexibility: Incorporate clear lease terms and break clauses to attract and retain tenants.
  • Sustainability Investments: Upgrade properties to meet MEES requirements and appeal to environmentally conscious tenants.
  • Compliance: Ensure that properties meet the minimum EPC rating requirements. Non-compliance can result in significant fines and restrictions on the ability to lease properties. Landlords may need to invest in energy efficiency improvements.

For Tenants:

  • Lease Negotiations: Negotiate favourable break clauses and rent concession terms. Be cautious of conditions attached to break clauses that you may not be able to comply with fully.
  • Clarity: Ensure awareness of any conditions attached to break clauses and comply with those when looking to exercise the break.
  • Energy Improving Works: Consider any landlord access provisions carefully, given the potential for business interruption.


The UK commercial real estate market is in a state of flux, driven by economic shifts, legislative changes, and emerging trends. For landlords, tenants, and investors, staying abreast of these developments is essential for making informed decisions and capitalising on opportunities. By understanding and adapting to the evolving commercial real estate legal landscape, stakeholders can navigate the complexities of the market and achieve sustainable success.

If you have any questions and/or would like advice on any commercial real estate, please contact us at: or your usual Dixcart contact.


The data contained within this document is for general information only. No responsibility can be accepted for inaccuracies. Readers are also advised that the law and practice may change from time to time. This document is provided for information purposes only and does not constitute accounting, legal or tax advice. Professional advice should be obtained before taking or refraining from any action as a result of the contents of this document.

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